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Full text of "Indians at work"

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V\T WORK' 




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT DF THE INTERIOR 
OFFICE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS • - WASHINGTON, D.C. 



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JHDJ ANS AT IOEK 

CONTENTS OF THE ISSUE OP JANUARY 1939 

Volume VI Number 5 

Page 

Editorial John Collier 1 

Reorganization News 4 

Indians Of The Louisiana Bayous Dr . Ruth M. Underhill ... 5 

Soil Conservation At Northern Idaho Reservations 8 

Tribal Codes Are Nothing New Earl Wooldridge 9 

Indians Live In Contrasting Climates 10 

Indian Service Acquires Anderson Sioux 

Collection Paul L. Fickinger 12 

Troublesome Indians Should Be Confined In Penal 

Settlements , Old Report Advocated 14 

The Story Of Alaska 1 s Reindeer D . E. Thomas 15 

Pawnee Hogans John P . Harrington 20 

The Indian Service Makes Its Annual Report 

For 1938 . 24 

"Manomin", The Wild Rice Of The Lake Country ... Mark L. Burns 26 

Indians In The News 30 

Cover Page Picture 31 

Unique CCC-ID Project Proves Valuable At Carson 

Agency In Nevada Edith V . Murphey 32 

Departmental Committee On Water Resources Named 33 

Elinor Gregg Leaves Indian Service 34 

Tools Found In Utah Cave 34 

Others Leave Indian Service: Miss Lavinia Mor- 
rison; John E. Dawson; Paul C- Thompson 35 

Uintah-Ouray Irrigation Survey Completed 35 

The Palm Springs Problem - A Step Toward 

Solution w. V. Woehlke 36 

Some Cheyenne Words ; 37 

Trees For The Cheyenne River Reservation In 

South Dakota Ernest G. Hawkinson .... 38 

Washington Office Visitors 39 

Range Rest And Revegetation Stop Blowing Sands 40 

Pine Ridge Children In And Out Of The Classroom 41 

Range Rehabilitation at Fort Hall, Idaho 42 

Bull Hollow CCC-ID Camp 42 

From CCC-ID Reports 43 



INDIANS AT WORK 

A News Sheet for Indians 
and the Indian Service 




VOLUME VI JANUARY 1939 NUMBER 5 

Interest, amid Indian Service, in the Federal Field Training School 
at Albuquerque , has outrun information. This has teen because the Albuquerque 
project was "feeling its way ll j announcements would have been premature. 

The reasons for the Federal Field Training School, and for other per- 
sonnel projects, are summarized in the Annual Eeport of the Interior Department 
for 1938. 

" Finding And Testing Administrators 

"Some realization, although surely not an adequate one, of 
the rapidly evolving character of the Indian Service, will have been 
conveyed by this report. The Service has moved swiftly from pre- 
scribed routines to experimental methods and local adaptations. The 
Indian Service administrator's task has become one of planning and 
leading; it is political in the richest sense of that word, and it 
is a business operation of complexity and magnitude; it involves the 
manipulation of a considerable number of technical services, always 
with a view to their incorporation within local Indian life. Indian 
administration calls for men and women with some creative endowment, 
much discipline, a capacity for suspended judgment joined with a 
capacity for taking action and for accepting the consequences of 
one's own initiative. It calls for an exceptional ability in deal- 
ing with superiors, with coordinate officers, and with subordinates. 
And finally, it calls for unusual endowments of efficient social and 
human nature; because an Indian Service which fails to enlist deeply 
the rank and file of the Indians falls short in everything else, 
and enlistment must be of the heart as well as of the head. 

"Is it possible to identify in advance, through methods 
appropriate to the competitive Civil Service, those endowments, in- 



terests, psychological traits, personality characteristics, which 
give promise of a successful administrative career in Indian Serv- 
ice? Can past performance supply the evidences of such fitness or 
want of fitness in a candidate? How can the probationary period 
be so used as to reveal the presence or absence of essential 
traits, the having or not having of the power to overcome threat- 
ening weaknesses? VThat kind of pre-service or in-service train- 
ing is needed, in order to meet this need which ultimately is the 
critical need in the Indian Service - the finding and developing 
of administrators? 

"In the main, the question must be asked not at the top 
administrative level, but at a level below the top one. The lead- 
ing personnel problem of Indian Service is to find and equip sub- 
ordinate or junior administrators, whose careers will be commenced 
in the local jurisdictions among the Indians. 



" Rockefeller Foundation Gives Grant F or Personnel Exp er i mentat i on 

"To try to find answers to the questions above set down, 
there has been established the Southwest Field Training School for 
Federal Service, administratively conducted under the Commissioner 
of Indian Affairs and the superintendent of the United Pueblos 
Agency. This activity is supported by a grant made by the Rocke- 
feller Foundation through the Institute of Public Affairs, and the 
search for the men and women to be admitted to the experimental en- 
terprise is a responsibility of the Institute of Public Affairs. 

"Essential to the success of the experiment is the place- 
ment of the so-called field aides in positions of true responsibil- 
ity, because in such situations alone can their vital abilities be 
finally tested. Essential, too, is the maintenance of performance 
records which shall supply an objective basis for competitive pro- 
motion; and the keeping and making of such records must not be con- 
fined to the members of the experimental institution, but should be 
extended to the regularly employed personnel as rapidly as knowledge 
is available and resources permit. A whole-time director of train- 
ing, attached to the experiment at Albuquerque, not merely works 
with and upon the so-called aides, but carries out job analyses 
within the United Pueblo and other jurisdictions, and it is his role 
to participate in the wider experimentation with records and with in- 
service training applied to the regularly employed personnel. The 
'aides 1 are not privileged persons in any sense of the word, but 
must meet, in qualifying for positions and in subsequent advancement, 
the tests of Civil Service and of the personnel system of the Interi- 
or Department and the Indian Office. The 'aides' are given testing 
experiences also in other Federal services local to the experimental 
area. 



"Arising initially out of interest in the experiment above 
described, there has been created an Interdepartmental Committee on 
Problems of Personnel, made up of representatives of the Civil Serv- 
ice Commission and the Departments of Agriculture and Interior. (Com- 
missioner Collier is chairman.) This committee, whose functions are 
not administrative but advisory, and in the nature of research, deals 
with questions of personnel common to the agencies which make it up, 
and especially with those questions which lie upon that borderline 
where the Civil Service Commission and the executive organizations 
have their problems in common." 

The field aides are, by preference, individuals between 24 and 30 
years old. They are college graduates. They are chosen on the basis of all 
obtainable record and of a series of personal interviews. They are paid a min- 
imum subsistence wage, and after a brief "orientation" course they are thrown 
into one after another of increasingly responsible assignments. The field 
aide who survives his year is dependable material for an administrative career 
in the Indian Service - indeed, in any field service of the government. Even 
then, he must qualify for permanent employment through open competitive examin- 
ations. 

Do the field aides by their work make unnecessary the work of those 
regularly employed? Such a question could be asked only by one who did not 
know the immensity of the Indian Service task. Goethe said of his drama "Faust" 
that it had "a quality of the immeasurable." Indian Service has that quality. 
The single Albuquerque area could absorb not ten but thrice ten field aides, 
without relieving of his weight of work or his horizon of opportunity one of 
the five hundred regular employees in that single jurisdiction. (Actually, 
United Pueblos is but one of the training and testing jurisdictions.) 

Do the field aides - does the Training School - do all of the innova- 
tions in the personnel field today - imperil the careers of those now in the 
Indian Service? Certainly, to newly enrich and strengthen as well as to chal- 
lenge and discipline the administrative talent of the Service is the aim of 
these ventures. Equally, however, these ventures are aimed at the finding of 
ways to identify, to train, and more rapidly to promote, those already in the 
Service who have strong endowments. All else in Indian Service depends upon 
the intensification of personnel ability. It is a fact, I believe, that a few 
of those now in the Service have experienced a feeling of insecurity due to 
these new undertakings. This must be endured; for no element of present pro- 
gram is more imperative than these. The whole force of the Department is back 
of these enterprises. 



Rarely have I reviewed a book in "Indians At Work." But now I men- 
tion one. It says nothing about Indians. It is Rear Admiral Byrd* s "Alone", 
just now published. 



I recommend this book to everyone, but especially to those in lonely 
posts and in difficult positions in Indian Service. 

For meteorological observations, in 1933, three men of the Byrd Ant- 
arctic Expedition were scheduled to stay throughout the long, absolute night 
of the south polar winter in a hut which was to be buried in a pit dug in the 
measureless glacier above the polar continent. Through circumstances beyond 
control, only one man, not three, could go, and Rear Admiral Byrd chose him- 
self as that one man. When the half-year night was less than two months ad- 
vanced, Byrd was laid low by carbon monoxide poisoning, which was constantly 
recurring thereafter . Then for nearly three months he fought such a battle as 
perhaps no other human annal records, against madness or death, or death fol- 
lowing madness. He won the fight, and in the course of it he lived to the 
depths of the mortal experience which was his lot on earth- This battle against 
poisonous gas, against the black cold of minus 60, minus 70, minus 80 degrees 
Fahrenheit, and against desperate organic need to which no help could come, 
must hold any reader as no romance of wild adventure could do. Around and amid 
the ordeal, the terrible, infinite beauty of aurora and of storm; and never did 
the man in his struggle with annihilation fall away from the awareness of this 
beauty. And not for one twenty-four-hour period did he neglect his observa- 
tions or his instruments. His loyalty and discipline passed into a victory over 
death - into a orofounder life. "Alone" is recommended to all. 




^e^*__. 



Commissioner of Indian Affairs 



R EORGANIZATION NgWS 

Constitutions : 

Yes No 
November 19 Walapai Tribe of the Walapai 

Reservation in Arizona 62 34 

November 30 Ottawa Tribe of Oklahoma 93 

December 5 Absentee - Shawnee Indian Tribe 

Of Oklahoma 121 50 

Charter : 

Yes No 
November 15 The Caddo Indians of Oklahoma 123 55 

Amendment To C harter : 

Yes No 

November 12 Red Cliff Band Of Lake Superior Chippewa 

Indians of the Red Cliff Reservation, 

Wisconsin 47 



INDIANS OF THE LOUISIANA BAYOUS 
By Dr. Buth M. Underhill, Associate Supervisor of Indian Education 




A Typical Louisiana Bayou 



In former days, In- 
dians of the great Muskogean 
language family covered al- 
most all the southeastern 
United States. It was mem- 
bers of this family, students 
think, who built the mounds 
of the Mississippi Valley, 
relics of one of the high 
civilizations of ancient 
North America. As the white 
Americans moved in, some of 
the greatest of the Muskoge- 
an peoples made treaties with 
them, by which they relin- 
quished their lands and 
settled on others in Okla- 
homa which means, in their 
language, Red People. Such 
were the Creek, Choctaw, 
Chickasaw and Seminole, who 
joined with the Cherokee, 
of a different language fam- 
ily, to form the Five Civi- 
lized Tribes. Behind them 
they left some scattered 
Muskogean relatives, who 
were never included in any 
treaty. Such were the Houma, 
or Bed People, still to be 
found in Louisiana. 

Once the Houma 
lived up the Mississippi 
where, said an old French 



explorer, "they had a temple embellished with the most pleasing and grotesque 
figures that one can see." Since that time, 238 years ago, French, Spanish 
and American whites have flooded into the Mississippi Valley and the Houma 
have moved and moved again, mixing with other Indian groups and, at times, with 
the other inhabitants of the land. Now they have found a home on the swampy 
bayous which stretch from the Mississippi down to the Gulf of Mexico. A hun- 
dred miles west of New Orleans is the town of Houma where once, they say, their 
people settled. Now the town is s i urounded by sugar plantations and, to reach 
the Indians, you must go far down the bayous from the Mississip-oi to the Gulf 
of Mexico. 



First you pass the homes of the Cajuns, or Acadians, exiled from 
Nova Scotia in 1755 when England deported the French settlers (thus were the 
famous Gabriel end Evangeline of Longfellow's poem separated for sorrowful 
years). The Cajuns were long the majority of the white population and they 
have left their legacy in the French language which is spoken everywhere and 
in the neatness of the little wooden houses, scrubbed and sanded like those of 
a French village. Cajuns and Indians have been neighbors for many a year and 
the interchange of habits is easy to note. Further along the bayou you may 
find a few Negro cabins immaculate as those of the whites and at last the homes 
of the Indians stretching perhaps past the end of the road so that they can be 
reached only by boat . 

These homes are one or two -roomed cabins with a gabled roof, some- 
times thatched with palmetto. If you could find a group of men thatching, you 
might see them tying a huge frond to the rafters by its own leaves, just as 
Muskogean people have done in this country for hundreds of years. Inside, the 
house is scrubbed clean as a hospital room and is furnished perhaps with a 
French four-poster bed draped with spotless mosquito netting and with hand- 
whittled chairs, with cowhide seats. 

Better than a cabin, however, the Indians consider, is a shantyboat 
with its blunt nose pushed up against the bank, ready to push off again, when- 




Cabin With Palmetto Thatch, Dugouts On Bank 



ever the hunting and fishing seem better somewhere else. You stop at the door 
of one such boat where a smiling young woman invites you to enter in old-fash- 
ioned French. She serves coffee in the hospitable Louisiana manner and shows 
you, perhaps, a blowgun made in the ancient Indian style. In the back room 
sit other women mending nets. 

Outside along the bayou more nets are stretched to dry. "We live," 
the Indians explain, "like the seagulls, on what we can get out of the water." 
This means fishing in summer, oystering and shrimping in winter. The Indians 
have always followed these practices, once for their own food alone, but now 
commercially • 

Outside on the bayou bank is the dugout canoe, hollowed from cypress 
trunk after the old Indian custom and called by the Indian name, pirogue . It 
seems shallow as a pan; if you try a ride in it you are amazed that a human 
body can balance itself in that shell against even a light puff of wind. But 
around the bayou bend comes one of the young men of the family standing casual- 
ly on the seat of his pirogue and poling along with a keg of shrimp as his 
load. "It is easy," he says. "We even have pirogue races. We get plenty of 
practice for one must use the pirogue to fish and to carry our shrimp to mar- 
ket and even to cross the bayou to visit a neighbor." He has been shrimping: 
he shows you how he stands in the flighty little craft to cast out the shrimp 




Shrimp Luggers 



net shaped like ahu^e parachute, then pulls the string to close the net and 
hauls it in, still without upsetting his pirogue. 

The man next door fishes on a larger scale. He has been able to buy 
a shrimp lugger, a chunky little boat with a gasoline engine with which he 
goes out to salt water, takes in thirty to forty barrels of shrimp and carries 
it to the cannery where he can make a ?ood sale. When shrimp are not plenti- 
ful he can go for oysters. So pass at least six months of the year. In mid- 
winter, like all the other Indians, he drops fishing and goes with all his 
family to the marshes where they camp in old Indian fashion. The man sets 
traps for mink and muskrat and the women skin the animals. Summer is the only 
slack time; even in summer, however, the bayou gives them fish enough to live 
on . 

It is a healthy life. The children are clear -skinned and bright- 
eyed. The bright eyes are not likely to become overstrained from reading for 
none of the Indians go to school- Nor have they ever gone: Louisiana law 
excludes Negroes from the white schools and the Indians, mixed or not, are con- 
sidered as Negro. They object to attending Negro school and, as a consequence, 
none of them can read and write. There are signs of change in this condition. 
Some very good church schools have been established, entirely for Indians. Two 
public schools have followed and the state superintendent of schools gives us 
hope that soon every bayou where the Indians live will have its one-room school- 
house. The Louisiana welfare authorities are also sympathetically interested 
in the Indians. In time we hope for a coordination of the various agencies 
who can offer to this independent and upstanding group of people the technical 
advice, medical advice and education which is needed to supplement their own 
efforts. 



SOIL C0N5.2RVATI0N AT NORTHERN IDAHO RESERVATIONS 

In cooperation with the Soil Conservation Service, erosion control 
and soil conservation farm management plans have been made for several allot- 
ments on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation, and have been put into effect with the 
consent of the Indian owners of the land and of the lessees who operate the al- 
lotments. In that area a very large part of the valuable topsoil which reaches 
an average depth of more than four feet, has already been destroyed by erosion 
as a result of wrong farming practices. The Palouse country in Idaho and Wash- 
ington is one of the finest wheat -growing districts in the world without a com- 
plete crop failure in seventy years, but the use of the land for straight wheat- 
raising has made its complete destruction within a comparatively few decades a 
strong probability. 3y changing the farming methods - by substituting soil- 
builaing end grass crops for straight wheat, by eliminating certain steep erod- 
ing areas from cultivation entirely - the remaining topsoil is being saved. 
These cooperative agreements with the allottees are the first in what is ex- 
pected to be a fairly complete coverage of all of the dangerous spots both on 
the Coeur d'Alene and the Nez Perce Reservations. 



TRIBAL CODES ARE NOTHING NEW 

By Earl Wooldridge , Superintendent, Grand Ronde-Siletz Agency, Oregon 

In going over old files here, I have discovered, among other interesting 
data, that the Grand Ronde Indians had an organization in 1879, 1880 and 1881 
which they called "The Grande Ronde Indian Legislature." This organization, 
which included about twelve members, met annually, and acted as both governing 
body and court. In addition to these responsibilities, the group passed laws 
for the guidance of their people. Some of the ordinances are given below, with 
their spelling and phraseology unchanged. 



November 12, 1877 

11th ; When the amount of money 
in the Treasury exceeds $50 it shall 
be loaned out at the rate of ten per- 
cent per anum to Some good man who 
Shall give Security, it shall not be 
loaned out for a longer period than 
Six Months. If any wheat or oats is 
on hand in the Treasury it shall be 
loaned out to Some good Man every 10 
bushel loaned to one man he shall re- 
turn 12 bushel after harvest . 

18th : If any man talk Saucey 
and abuse another person with out 
cause and provoke him so that he whip 
him the person that commenced the dis- 
pute or was the cause of the quarrell 
if convicted shall be fined from $2.50 
to $5-00 and Cost of Court. 

20th : Any doctor who doctors 
any Person and think he cant cure the 
person he must tell the person he 
cant cure him so that he dont rob him 
of all his property, he is to receive 
$2.50 for his cervices, but if the 
Doctor keeps on doctoring him and 
dont cure after he is to be fined 
$10.00 and Cost of Court if proven. 

November 4, 1879 

12th: If any woman promise to 
marry a man and he shall expend any 
money for preparing for marriage and 
the woman brake her promise and re- 
fuse to marry, the man shall recover 



from the woman the amount so expended, 
and cost court if he have to bring 
law suit. 

13th : If a man promise to mar- 
ry a woman and afterwards refuse to 
marry her he shall pay all expenses 
fees and be fined $10- and Cost of 
Court. 

20th: Any man who belong to 
this Agency and rent land out side 
of the Agency, and he use the Agency 
machines raper and mower and thresh- 
er he shall pay tole for the use of 
such machines as if same same as 
charged out side or what ever is the 
custom to charge, if the machines 
got plenty to do on the agency they 
must first attend to the agency. 

29th : The following old people 
dont have to work on road viz Old 
Rily, old Elkins, Old Taytor, old J . 
Brown, old Cass old Amos, old Wach- 
ena, old Clamath jim, old Quackerty, 
Yamhill jo, all men pay tax and San- 
son Wilder. 

February 28, 1881 

31st: Any Indian who own land 
and dont build on it or work on it, 
and live on another mans land when 
he is notef ied by the person who own 
land that he lives on, and dont 
leave, he is to be fined if found 
guilty in the sum of $10.00 and 
cost. 



INDIANS 



LIVE 



I N 




The two photographs on this 
page are of the hospital at -Black- 
feet, Montana. They were taken during 
the winter of 1936-37- 

After a heavy snowfall, the 
only entrance to the building, then 
nearing completion, was the tunnel 
shown in the photographs. Subsequent 
grading work has minimized the likeli- 
hood of recurrence of similar drift- 
ing. 

The top photograph on the 
opposite page shows date palms at 
Torres-Martinez Reservation, Mission 
Agency, California- 

The bottom photograph on the 
page opposite was taken in Death Val- 
ley, California, home of a few scat- 
tered groups of Indians: Pomos, Mewuks, 
Paiutes, and Shoshones . 




10 



CONTRASTING CLIMATES 





11 



INDIAN SERVICE ACQUIRES ANDERSON SIOUX COLLECTION " 
By Paul L. Fickinger, Associate Director of Education 



With the announcement of the consummation, in November, of the pur- 
chase of the world-famous John Anderson Sioux Indian Museum Collection, the 
Education Division of the Indian Office has realized a dream of many years' 
standing. 

Mr- Anderson has "been loath to sell his collection of Sioux artifacts 
which he had gathered over a fifty-two year period, starting when he was a 
pioneer photographer on a South Dakota Indian reservation. Negotiations, how- 
ever , were started last spring for the purchase of the collection and after as- 
surance had been given that the collection would not be taken out of the Sioux 
country, and that it would be properly housed and cared for, arrangements were 
made for the sale. 




One Of The Cases Showing Good Examples Of Sioux Beadwork 



12 




This Case Includes Bone Necklaces Of Various Types, Courting 
Flutes, Dance Whistles, Game Sticks and Dolls. 

For the past year the collection has been displayed under the super- 
vision of Mr. Anderson in the new Museum Building at Rapid City, constructed 
specifically for the purpose by the city with the help of W.P-A- During the 
past summer the Museum was visited by nearly 150, COO tourists- At a meeting 
held at the Pine Ridge Indian Agency on November 11, at which Rapid City of- 
ficials and the Hon. Francis Case, member of Congress, were present, an agree- 
ment was reached whereby the city agreed to turn over to the Indian Office the 
sole use of the Museum Building and in return the Indian Service agreed to 
maintain in the building a permanent Sioux museum collection. It was further 
agreed that under the supervision of the Indian Office a sales booth would be 
operated for the sale of authentic high-quality Sioux Indian arts and crafts. 

It is proposed to divide the collection into three parts. One part 
will be housed in the new fire-resistant high school building at Pine Ridge. 
A second part will be temporarily housed in the crafts building at the Rosebud 
Agency until such time as the new high school building is constructed, when it 
will be permanently housed in space specifically designed for it in the new 
building. The third part will be retained in the museum building at Rapid City 
and will be supplemented with Sioux artifacts which have been gathered over a 
period of years throughout the entire Sioux country. 



13 



The development of a sales booth in connection with the muse-am will 
provide for the Sioux area an excellent mitlet for arts and crafts of the 
Sioux people. It will also give the general public an opportunity to purchase 
high-quality Indian goods, for it must be borne in mind that the sales booth 
will deal only in superior Indian merchandise. 



TROUBLESOME INDIANS SHOULD BE CONFINED IN PENAL SETTLEMENTS , 

OLD ANNUAL REPORT ADVOCATED 

(From The Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1879) 

"A penal settlement for the confinement and reformation of the more 
turbulent and troublesome individuals among the various Indian tribes is a 
pressing want and immediate action should be taken for the establishment of 
such a settlement. For the worst class of refractory Indians one settlement 
should be in Florida which is far enough away from Indian reservations to make 
any attempt at escape hopeless. Another settlement should be established in 
the Northwest, at some point where a considerable quantity of arable land can 
be found so that Indians who are thus restricted in their liberty may be 
taught to work for their support. 

"It is impossible to properly govern a barbarous people like our 
wilder Indians without being able to inflict some punishment for wrongdoing 
that shall be a real punishment to the offender. At the present time the mil- 
itary are called upon to suppress insurrections and to chastise by the penal- 
ties and losses of war to those who rebel against the government- These are 
temporary evils to the Indians and unless the punishment inflicted is unusual- 
ly severe the lesson is soon forgotten. Moreover in such cases chastisement 
often falls heavily on innocent parties instead of the guilty. If the Indian 
Office had a penal settlement where turbulent individuals among the tribe 
could be placed, they could be taken from their homes to the place of punish- 
ment without disturbing the general peace and the prompt infliction of a pun- 
ishment of this kind would tend to curb the evil-disposed and prevent them 
from stirring up outbreaks. In fact, there is nothing the Indian would dread 
more than to be deprived of his liberty. 

"Such a settlement should be guarded by a sufficient force to exer- 
cise perfect discipline and such prisoners should be taught trades as well as 
agriculture. A school of correction of this kind would be of inestimable val- 
ue to the Indian Service and it would exercise a reformatory influence that 
could not be obtained by simple confinement. Useful occupation would in most 
cases enable them to be returned to their homes in an advanced condition of 
civilization." 



14 



THE STORY OF ALASKA'S REINDEER 



By D. E. Thomas, Chief Of Alaska Section 




Reindeer At (Lower Yukon) Marshall, Alaska 

There are on this continent over half a million animals not native 
to North America, whose ancestors were imported through Congressional appropria- 
tion. They are the Alaska reindeer. 

When the United States purchased Alaska from Russia in 1867 there 
were no reindeer on the North American Continent. At that time the few white 
men in Alaska were mostly Russian employees of the Imperial Russian Government 
and the fur- trading companies. 

Credit for this industry as it exists today is due principally to the 
vision of two men - the Reverend Sheldon Jackson, who was General Agent for the 
U. S. Bureau of Education in Alaska from 1885 to 1907, and to Captain Michael 
Healy, commanding officer of the United States Revenue Cutter "Bear." 

During the late "seventies and early 'eighties, Dr. Jackson had been 
in charge of the mission work of the Presbyterian Church in the Rocky Mountain 
and Pacific Northwest areas, and subsequently in Alaska. In the course of his 
supervisory work, Dr. Jackson came to know Alaska well- When the Federal Gov- 
ernment decided to establish schools under the Department of the Interior in 
what was then the District of Alaska, it was logical that Dr. Jackson should 
be chosen as the first general agent for the U. S. Bureau of Education, to 
which the administration of these schools was assigned. 

On one of his first trips to Alaska, Dr. Jackson had found the Eski- 
mos thriving on the native food supply of seal, walrus, whale, fish and game. 
A year or two later, visiting this sajne area, he had found whole villages al- 
most wiped out by starvation, and the ground strewn with the bones of men, wo- 
men and children. He talked with the few emaciated survivors who told of the 
famine caused by the depletion of their native food supplies. Always somewhat 



15 



subject to fluctuation in numbers, the wild caribou were disappearing from the 
coastal areas and the whaling fleet had made severe inroads on the whales and 
walrus which constituted a major portion of the natives' food supply. Not only 
was the food supply disappearing, but the raw materials for clothing as well. 

Their pioneer missionary leader, deeply affected by the misery of 
these formerly vigorous people, discussed the problem in detail with Captain 
Michael Healy of the "Bear" , on his return voyage. Captain Healy had, in the 
course of his travels, often visited the Chuckchees, Eskimos living on the 
Siberia side of Bering Strait, and had observed the large reindeer herds owned 
by these people which offered insurance against famine during the periodical 
depletion of wild game and sea food. Captain Healy suggested the importation 
of some of these reindeer to Alaska. Dr. Jackson was fired with enthusiasm 
over the idea and presented it to William T. Harris, Commissioner of Education, 
on his return to Washington. The Department backed the project and a number 
of Senators and Congressmen became interested, including Senator Henry M. Tel- 
ler, of Colorado, who became an especially enthusiastic supporter. The first 
year, however, the appropriation failed to pass. Dr. Jackson obtained approv- 
al to appeal to the public. Churches, newspapers and welfare groups became 
interested and some $2,000 was raised and placed at Dr. Jackson's disposal, with 
which the first shipments totaling some 186 reindeer were purchased in Siberia f 
carried on the "Bear" and landed on wh^t is now Teller, Alaska, in 1891 and 
1892. The following year Congress made an appropriation for further purchases 
and between 1892 and 1902, 1,280 reindeer were* imported into Alaska. 

In 1902 the Bussian 
Government issued a Ukase for- 
bidding any further exporta- 
tion of reindeer from Siberia. 
Thus it is from these two im- 
portations that the present 
herds have descended. 

The problem re- 
mained as to the training of 
Eskimos to handle the rein- 
deer herds- The inhabitants 
of Lapland had owned large 
reindeer herds for centuries 
and were well versed in their 
care and in the use of reindeer products. Dr. Jackson was authorized to visit 
Lapland and to make contracts with a number of Lapps experienced in the rein- 
deer business to move with their families to Alaska, to live there for a spec- 
ified period and to give instruction to Eskimo herders selected by the Bureau 
of Education. The Lapps were engaged, crossed the Atlantic, the United States 
by railroad to San Francisco, and then sailed to Alaska- (Seattle did not be- 
come an important city and port of departure for Alaska until after 1898.) 
Nearly all of these Lapps and their descendants remained in Alaska permanently 
and many of them today are well-to-do residents of the Territory. 




Teller, Alaska 



16 



A second problem confronting the officials who were inaugurating the 
Reindeer Service in Alaska was the distribution of the reindeer so that they 
would reach the greatest possible number of Eskimos. The first contracts made 
by the Bureau of Education were with the various missionary denominations with 
headquarters in northwestern Alaska. These contracts provided that approximate- 
ly one hundred reindeer be transferred from the Government to the specified 
mission on condition that the mission, over a period of years, train a given 
number of young Eskimos in the care and management of the deer. At the end of 
the specified period the missions were to return to the Government the same 
number of reindeer loaned them. In the meantime, a portion of the increase was 
to be transferred to the reindeer apprentices; the remainder were to be retained 
by the missions as foundation herds. 

As finally worked out, this apprenticeship system called for a four- 
year training of promising young Eskimos. During their period of apprentice- 
ship, they received food and clothing to the value of about $300 a year; in ad- 
dition they received reindeer annually, the number varying from six their first 
year to ten during their third and fourth years. At the end of the four years, 
each apprentice owned a herd of approximately fifty reindeer and became a 
qualified reindeer herder. Contracts were then entered into with these herders 
to train apprentices under the same system. Through this endless chain the 
reindeer were distributed throughout northern and western Alaska. This system 
was drawn up in large part by William T. Lopp, formerly a Congregational mis- 
sionary and later a holder of various government posts in Alaska, including 
those 6f Superintendent of Education of Natives and General Reindeer Superin- 
tendent. 

On November 1, 1929, the Alaska Reindeer Service was transferred from 
the Bureau of Education to the supervision of the Governor of Alaska, undpr- 
whose jurisdiction it remained until July 1, 1937, when it was again transferred 
to the Office of Indian Affairs, which had in the meantime taken over health and 
education work among Alaska Natives. 

Whether or not the industry can ever be made a profitable commercial 
venture, the Natives of Alaska owe to the importation of reindeer a large share 
of what economic security they have. Not only is reindeer meat important in' 
their diet; most of their clothing as well comes from reindeer. Mukluk uppers 
(boots), parkas, mittens, trousers and inside parkas - usually made of fawn 
skins - all depend on reindeer skins for their material. 

Reindeer require little care. They secure their own food both winter 
and summer, living on reindeer moss in winter and grasses and other vegetation 
in summer. They need no shelter. They do require some herding throughout the 
year in order to prevent straying, and they also need some protection from 
predatory animals, especially from the wolves which in the past few years have 
increased in number in the reindeer country. 

In the late fall, the deer are rounded up, driven into corrals - when 
they are available - and butchered. The meat is put into the natural cold 
storage which underlies most of Alaska - the glacial ice found anywhere between 
one 'and three feet below the ground's surface. Most reindeer herds are run by 



17 



native cooperatives which were first sponsored by the U. S. Office of Education 
and which have been further encouraged by the Indian Service. Ownership is in- 
dicated by various ear cuts and these are registered with the Territorial Gov- 
ernment . 

Lona E. Morlander , Indian Service teacher at Yakut at , describes a 
reindeer roundup near Kivalina in preparation for the annual shipment of car- 
casses on the "'North Star." 

"Kobruvuk walked slowly, deliberately, into the midst of the 
now slowly-milling animals. He raised his rifle. The ping of the 
bullet sang out ... The deer kept milling gently, showing very lit- 
tle excitement as shot after shot felled companions standing shoul- 
der to shoulder with them. 

"Suddenly a cry rang out. 'Kohneetl 1 (Reindeer!) I saw four 
or five of the older natives rushing down to the shore of the lagoon. 
A section of the herd led by one antlered buck, braver than the rest, 
had made a dash for liberty via the lagoon- 

"The old Eskimos took to their small skin boats. What a racel 
The light craft, four of them, shot out alongside the deer which 
were swimming desperately for the mainland- But the herders soon 
had the swimming deer cut off from the mainland. With wild gutter- 
al shouts and waving of their single kayak paddles, the. Eskimo herd- 
ers in the water did some quick work and managed to drive about 
half the escaping deer back to the spit. The rest sped across the 
tundra in long spring strides and were soon lost to sight in the 
foothills. 

"As I watched, the butchering continued, but the firing 
ceased because the ammunition became exhausted- Lassoing and 
stabbing were now in order. Females were spared. And so the butch- 
ering continued into the Arctic night, whose twilight lasted long 
enough to enable the workers to finish their two-day task of prepar- 
ing five hundred deer for shipment-"* 

The exportation of reindeer on a large scale would not seem, on the 
basis of present conditions, to be likely to be commercially profitable. The 
Loraen Reindeer Corporation and its subsidiaries attempted, during the past 
fifteen or twenty years, to build up a profitable export business in connection 
with its holdings of Alaska reindeer. Large sums were invested in the project. 
Reindeer were slaughtered in considerable numbers; abattoirs were established 
in Alaska; and the meat exported to the United States for sale. The high cost 
of operation in Alaska and the high cost of transportation to Seattle, however, 
worked against the success of the project. The largest number exported in any 
one year was probably some eight or ten thousand. 

* Excerpted with permission from " The Alaska Sportsman ." 



18 



The Alaska Eskimos have sent a number of shipment e to Seattle on the 
Indian Service vessels, "North Star" and "Boxer." During the past few years, 
the only reindeer exported by the Eskimos have been approximately 1,000 car- 
casses shipped on the "North Star" once a year on the vessel's return trip from 
its Arctic cruise. This meat has been disposed of almost entirely in Alaska, 
at various stops er. route back to Seatle. 

The Alaska reindeer is a comparatively small animal which weighs from 
100 to 125 pounds dressed. The meat is prime during only a comparatively short 
portion of the year. The animals are semi -wild and frequently the herds are lo- 
cated at considerable distances from the Eskimo villages. The cost of rounding 
up the deer, slaughtering them, dressing the carcasses, and of cold storage and 
transportation to Seattle, is so great that it is not practical to sell the 
meat in the States in competition with beef, pork and lamb. 

In September 1937, Congress passed legislation (50 Stat. 900), which 
authorizes the Secretary of the Interior to purchase, for the benefit of the 
Eskimos and other Natives of Alaska, all of the reindeer owned by white indi- 
viduals, by Lepos and by missions, together with abattoirs and other -oroperty 
used in connection with the reindeer industry, to the end that the reindeer in- 
dustry in Alaska will belong exclusively to the Eskimos and other natives. It 
is estimated that Natives already own two-thirds of the reindeer. The sum of 
$2,000,000 was authorized to be appropriated for this purpose, but so far no 
appropriation has been made. 

Under the 1939 Interior Department Appropriation Act, the chairmen 
of the Senate and House Appropriation Committees were empowered to appoint a 
committee of three to visit Alaska to investigate the reindeer industry and to 
jnake recommendations as to the advisability of the government's carrying through 
the purchase of all non-Native-owned reindeer. The committee which included 
Mr. C. E. Eachford, Dr. D. T. Wilson and Mr. Frank H. Beeds , during its three- 
months' visit last summer attended a number of reindeer round-ups, inspected 
slaughterhouses and took testimony from various interested persons. It will 
make its recommendations to the Congress some time this month, and its findings 
are eagerly awaited. 




The Arrival Of A Plane At Point Barrow, Alaska, 
The Northermost Point On The Continent 



19 



PAWNEB HOGANS 
By John P. Harrington, Smithsonian Institution 

On the "lower course of the Loup River in Southern Nebraska, there 
survived until sixty-three years ago, villages of earth-covered houses similar 
in construction and appearance to Navajo hogans of the Southwest. These were 
villages of the Skidi Pawnee who lived on the lower Loup until about 1875, when 
they were removed to Indian Territory, now Oklahoma. Skidi Pawnee means "Wolf 
Pawnee. The Loup River takes its name from the French loup , wolf. 

These Pawnees were so unlucky as to locate their village on some of 
the best land in Nebraska, where the famous Mormon Trail west passed up the 
Loup. Prom earliest ti-nes they were molested and crowded out by white settlers. 
In the '70s, although they had sold off most of their land, there was still a 
Pawnee Reservation thirty miles by fifteen miles, with its agency at Genoa on 















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Photograph By Mr. W. H. Jackson Taken In 1871 Of The Skidi Pawnee Village 

Of. "Hogans" On The Lovqp River Near Genoa, Nebraska, A Remarkable Picture Of 

The Last Surviving Pawnee Settlement On The Loup, Taken Just Before The 

Removal Of The Skidi Pawnee To Indian Territory. 



20 



the Loup River. The brick Indian school stands there to this day, sole sur- 
vival of reservation times. The villages have long since been reduced to house 
debris mounds. 

Although Dr. Waldo R . Wedel, Assistant Curator of Archaeology, U. 5. 
National Museum, has completed a recent paper on Pawnee archaeology, Mr. A. T. 
Hill of the Nebraska State Historical Society is probably the greatest special- 
ist on Pawnee archaeology. In 1922 Nebraska people became interested in exca- 
vating the spot mentioned in the Zebulon M. Pike journals as the locality where 
the American flag was first raised in Nebraska. Mr. Hill discovered this site 
to be on the south bank of the Republican River, near Red Cloud. Mr. Hill 
thoroughly excavated the site and found specimens which are now practically all 
located in the State Historical Museum at Lincoln. 

Careful digging usually lays bare a hogan floor, with post holes. 
Pawnee houses differ from the Navajo hogan by having center posts. Among the 
Pawnee, as among the Navajo, the hogan door is said by old Indians to be al- 
ways to the east, so that the rays of the rising sun can awaken the inmates. 
Excavation of the Loup hogans show how far these traditions may be invention 
only. Doors were found to open not only to the east but to the southeast and 
even, rarely, to the southwest. The idea evidently was to place the door away 
from the northwest where blew the most unpleasant winds. 

The sizes of the Loup houses were sometimes enormous, larger than any 
Navajo hogan. They ranged from 24 to 45 feet in diameter, while a tall man 
could easily stand under the eaves. The center of the hogan rose to twelve or 
even eighteen feet. 

The excavations also brought to li^at old buffalo skull altars and 
graves with early trade materials such as army canteens and earthenware pots- 
In 1822, Major S. H. Long, while visiting the Loup villages, tells of hearing 
the story of an Indian Lochinvar. The Pawnees were about to sacrifice a maiden 
to the Morningstar. She was tied to a framework. Suddenly a chief's son came 
riding in, cut the thongs and rode off with the girl. In Washington, D. C. , a 
few years later, members of a girls' academy had a silver medal cast, showing 
on one side the freeing of the maiden and on the other side the inscription "To 
The Bravest Of Braves." In 1920 some pot hunters digging around the ruins turned 
up this medal, which conceivably had been a possession of the rescuing son of 
the chief. 

The occupation of the Loup River Valley by the Skidi Pawnee is very 
old - in fact the oldest ascertained occupation of any locality in Nebraska. The 
Pawnees were known to the Spanish of the Southwest as Panani . Pawnee -slaves 
were an article of commerce, being purchased by the Spanish from the Comanche 
and other tribes. Mexican people of New Mexico are in part descended from the 
early Panani s. 



21 





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23 



TH;<: INDIAN SERVICE MAKiSS ITS ANNUAL Ri£P0RT FOR 1938 



The Northern Cheyennes on the Tongue River Reservation in Montana 
last year borrowed money from the Government and used their principal asset, 
grass, to feed cattle bought with their borrowed money. They sold out at a 
profit, and are eager to try again next year. This is one of the many examples 
of Indian economic development cited in the annual report of the Office of In- 
dian Affairs for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1938 and released December 18. 

This report is incorporated in the report of the Secretary of the In- 
terior and may be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, Government 
Printing Office, Washington, D. C, for fifty cents. 

This year the report records solid accomplishment in varied fields. 
More, it reports an intangible but vital factor: the resurgence of Indians' 
own confidence in their future. 

To quote the report: "To think of Indians is to think of land." On 
security in possession and use of land Indian life depends for its continued 
integrity and vigor. This administration has continued to add to Indian land 
in various ways: by purchases under the Indian Reorganization Act; by restora- 
tions of ceded land, also made under the I.R.A.; and by special purchases. 
Since 1933 the Indian estate has been increased by 2,540,000 acres- 

■The report cites the Indian Service's own consciousness of short- 
coming in one phase of its land program: the failure to solve the accumulated 
snarl of the allotment and heirship problem. Land exchanges have made a minute 
beginning in easing this gnawing problem and organization of Indian groups is 
paving the way for a concerted effort by Indians and Indian Service workers to 
solve it; to date, however, it remains unsolved- 

Conservation has been the theme running through much of Indian Service 
activity: conservation of existing physical values, and upbuilding for the fu- 
ture. The 46,000,000 acres of Indian range and forest area - an area larger 
than North Dakota - are being administered on a permanent yield basis. Analysis 
of the administrative cost of forest and range management shows the remarkably 
low figure of nine-tenths of a cent per acre; a figure so low, in fact, as to 
indicate inadequate protection of this large share of Indian property. 

The Indian Division of the Civilian Conservation Corps, employing a 
daily average of 6,907 Indian enrollees, has done a far-reaching and many-sided 
job. Range protection through water development, fencing, reseeding and erosion 
control works; timber protection through truck trail, fire lookout and telephone 
construction, and through pest control, are examples. Physical work on land, 
a chance for self-support, and training of enrollees have continued to make 
this program a revitalizing factor in Indian life. 



24 



Space does not permit a review here of accomplishments and trends in 
other fields of Indian Service work. More fruitful use of land by Indians is 
the objective of the Extension Division's farming and livestock program. Ir- 
rigation works, especially small projects for community use as supplemental to 
a livestock economy, are being expanded, and 17,000 additional acres are under 
irrigation as compared with 1937. 

A rich -and varied school program, strongly rooted in local needs, in 
which community participation and training for life are emphasized, is the 
goal of the Indian Service. A dispassionate review of the year's work shows 
that the Indian Service is nearer this goal, both in number of children in 
school, and in the quality of training available to them. 

The Indian Service health program has pushed prevention as well as 
care, and th^re are definite indications that tuberculosis, as the greatest 
enemy of Indian health, is declining. Indian Service physicians have made im- 
portant contributions to the conquest of trachoma, dreaded eye disease, and 
new treatment irethods may produce momentous results. New and well-equipped 
hospitals give Indian Service medical workers new weapons in their fight to 
achieve better health among Indians. 

A vital indication of Indian progress, and one on which adequate and 
reliable information has been lacking, is Indian income. Compared with white 
standards, the earnings of Indians are still low. The 1938 report shows that 
the average yearly income for an Indian family of four to be about $600. In 
this figure are included earned (about two-thirds) and unearned income, and 
money and goods from work relief and direct relief are also included. Only an 
inconsiderable number of Indians receive more than $1,000 a year. These higher 
incomes, in most cases, are primarily gained from unearned sources such as oil 
royalties or leases. While the Indian is definitely in the lower-income third 
of the population, in many cases Indian gainful activities, through planned 
development and improved management of his assets, have become increasingly 
stable and productive. Compilation of annual statistical data on Indian income, 
heretofore not available, was begun in 1937, and future comparisons should 
prove illuminating. 

The development of Indian management of Indian affairs is not spec- 
tacular, measured statistically; in terms of individual reservation and commun- 
ity cases, however, it is more than heartening. The report shows 82 tribes, 
numbering 93,520 Indians, as organized under the Indian Reorganization Act by 
June 30, and of these, 57 tribes, numbering 64,000 Indians, as incorporated and 
in a position to assume a large degree of management of their own affairs. The 
sum of $520,000 was lent during the year to organized tribes through the Act's 
revolving credit fund, for various individual and group enterprises, and the 
record so far of production and repayment is impressive. 

The trend toward Indian self-government is becoming increasingly power- 
ful: Indians are seeing their own future more clearly, and are moving toward 
that future. Progress in some fields is slow and the Indian Service is well 
aware of its own shortcomings in execution of some phases of its program. But 
the goal of economic self-sufficiency, of a vital and progressive Indian life, 
is measurably nearer . 

25 



" MANOMIN " , TEE WILD RICE OF THE LAKE COUNTRY 

(Taken from material furnished by Mr. Mark L. Bums, Superintendent, 

Consolidated Chippewa Agency in Minnesota. Credit is also due Mr. L. B. Miller 

and Mrs. Astrid C. Erickson of the Great Lakes Agency in Wisconsin, 

who had previously supplied material.) 






.^>^f^t* 



«^«W^^S5S©|s 





An Excellent Stand Of Wild Rice Along 
The Edge Of A Stream 



Slowly the birch- 
bark canoe glides through the 
foggy marsh canal. The silver 
gray water gurgles as the pole 
is pushed down. The sun glints 
eold on the ripnles and the 
breeze sings gently in the 
tall rice stalks. 

It is full autumn 
and the Chippewas have re- 
turned to the streams and 
lakes of Minnesota and Wiscon- 
sin to harvest the wild rice. 
The canoes must be poled slow- 
ly. Paddles would break the 
delicate stems- The canoes 
are broad, with a beam of 
thirty inches, double pointed, 
and light . The Indian who 
gathers in the rice bends the 
heads of the stems so that 
the grain hangs inside the boat . The careful harvester taps only the ripe ker- 
nels- The Chippewa, or Ojibway, leaves his lake seeded. That is why the white 
man's machine harvester is not used for the wild rice crop. In fact, so super- 
ior has the Indian method proved that the State Conservation Commissioner in 
Minnesota has prohibited the use of machines for wild rice harvesting. 

Wild rice is an annual plant, springing from seed every year, grow- 
ing in lakes and slow-flowing streams which have a mud-alluvial bottom. The 
kernels, when ripe, do not remain on the stalks long but drop to the water and 
anchor themselves below in the mud and produce the crop the following year. 
Wild rice is susceptible to storms and frosts and is wholly dependent upon 
proper water levels- If the lake or water levels are excessively high, to use 
the Indian t«rm "it is drowned out" and the stalks are lifted off of the stems 
and float; if it is low, especially for several seasons, instead of the wild 
rice crop rush grasses and weeds of various species such as cattails come up. 

Wild rice has been a staple of the Lakes Indians as far back as there 
are any records- Father Hennepin in 1683 records in his diary that, "In the 
lakes grew an abundance of wild oets ... provided that the lnkes were not over 



26 



three feet deep." So essential was the rice crop to feeding the tribes over 
the wild winters that many bloody wars were fought between the Chippewas and 
the Sioux over the rice beds • 



With the centuries little change in the implements used for harvest- 
ing the rice has taken place. After gathering, the grain is dried in the open 
air, or parched carefully over a slow fire. Then, either by treading with the 
feet (wearing new moccasins for the occasion) or by beating with sticks against 
cedar slabs the Indian hulls the dark slate-colored grain. Sometimes this tra- 
ditional method is supplanted by attaching a barrel, through which has been 
driven a pronged iron bar, 
to the back wheel of a v thun- 
der buggy . w 

The grain is 
winnowed by pouring it from 
dish to dish of birch-bark, 
or by fanning it gently when 
placed upon blankets. Thus 
prepared, wild rice is a 
compact, nourishing staple, 
and one easily transported 
and easily stored- In old- 
er days the crop was com- 
munally held, with, however, 
the recognition of certain 
family privileges. One- 
third of it was cached be- 
low the frost line to be ex- 
humed only with the spring 
thaws when food was scarcest 
Today the Indian has taken 
some pages from the white 
man's book and a system of 
private ownership of an ex- 
acting nature has replaced 
the old. 




Note How Thin The Wild Rice Crop Is In This 

Lake. If Improper Harvesting Methods Are 

Employed By Whites - Gathering It Green And 

Using Large Boats Which Break The Stalks - 

It Will Not Be Long Before This Wild 

Rice Bed Will Be Completely Destroyed. 



In the halcyon days of a better era for the Indian the wild rice crop 
flourished on all the shallow lakes. As the white man came to own many of the 
lake sites he forced the Indian to pay rent for his rice holding* either in 
cash or in kind. This was not only hard on the Indians but it shattered their 
traditional methods of farming the rice crop. This was marked by two main 
features: the insuring of the following year's crop by not indiscriminately 
harvesting all the seed and by the sharing of the crop on a tribal basis. 

Bfforts have been made by the Federal Government to restore much of 
the rice crop to the Indians- In land acquisition projects rice beds have been 
purchased and camp sites have been made available during the rice harvesting 
season. More of these purchases are planned. Particularly worthy of note is 
the work that has been done in this connection by the CCC-ID . On the harvest 



27 



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A Primitive Method Of Separating 
The Husks Prom The Kernels 



camping grounds, some of them centuries old, 
wellB have teen driven, trails cut, pumps 
for pure water installed, sanitary provisions 
made, and solid earth docks on log founda- 
tions erected. Lakes have been reseeded. 
Canals for the harvest craft have been cut. 
Distance- saving pole walks have been built 
which eliminate miles of long trekking. Ad- 
ministration of these new campsites, it is 
planned, will be left to the Chippewa Trib- 
al Executive Committee. 

Due to reckless exploitation of 
some of the former rice beds certain lakes 
have dried up. Under the direction of the 
Indian Service, Indian labor under the 
Emergency Conservation Work program has con- 
structed dams which maintain the level of 
lakes on a year-round basis. 

The result of such intelligent 
conservation practices has been to insure 
to the Chippewa families who make the annual 
pilgrimage to the rice harvest a crop which 
will no longer hit hi^is of 150 tons and 
then, the very next year, drop to a low of 
twenty-five tons. The all-important water level in the lakes will be kept 
constant and the crop will therefore be stabilized. This will tend also to 
stabilize the price which at present varies between 25 cents and 45 cents a 
pound for ripe rice. In short the Chippewa* will have for an indefinite time 
to come a sure and developed 
source of income and food. It 
is estimated that of the to- 
tal crop of this delicate 
food, esteemed by epicures, 
the Indians harvest seventy 
per cent . 

On early fall morn- 
ings the canoes can dart out 
on the limpid surfaces of 
the lakes from new vantage 
points- The men will know 
that a good crop of the cere- 
al await 8 them, and the women 
can welcome back the canoes 
at sundown, laden with the 
two hundred pounds of the 
gift that in the past out of 
memory the Great Spirit gave 
their ancestors. 




A Chippewa Canoe -Maker Constructing A 
Birch-Bark Canoe Preparatory 
To Gathering Wild Bice. 



29 



INDIANS IN THE NEWS 

("Indians At Work" quotes, from time to time, pertinent newspaper 
comment on current Indian matters. This is taken from the 
"Courier-Express* 1 , Buffalo, New York, November 23, 1938.) 

Attorney For Six Nations Contradicts Dies Witness ; Indians Much Better Off 

Under Collier , Says Codd , Praising Wheeler -Howard Act 

Robert M. Codd, attorney for the Six Nations confederacy and a lead- 
ing authority on Indian affairs, said last night that Mrs. Alice Lee Jemison, 
who testified in Washington yesterday that the condition of the Indians today 
is "absolutely outrageous" doesn't know the real situation. 

"So far as New York State is concerned, Indians have become immensely 
Detter off since John Collier assumed control of the Federal Indian Bureau," 
Mr. Codd declared. "Mrs. Jemison is not Indian -minded . She lived off the 
reservation and was educated off the reservation- Possibly she doesn't know 
what's going on in her own Cattaraugus Reservation." 

Never Private Ownership ■ Mrs. Jemison's charge that the American 
Civil Liberties Union sponsored the Wheeler -Howard Act of 1934 and that the 
measure encouraged "communal ownership" among the Indians evoked a laugh from 
Mr. Codd. 

"Communal ownership is traditional on Indian reservations," he 9aid. 
"There never was such a thing as private ownership. Even the water and miner- 
al rights are owned in common. It ever has been thus." 

Mrs. Jemison, who worked for two years as a stenographer in Mr. Codd's 
office here, was identified at Washington as a representative of the American 
Indian Federation. 

"This organization has no standing in the Six Nations," Mr. Codd 
said. "No local Indians are connected with it that I know of and I ought to 
know, for I represent the Indians of the confederacy living in New York State 
and the Oneidas in Wisconsin. 

"I do not believe the Civil Liberties Union had much to do with the 
Wheeler-Howard Act. The measure certainly was not communistic. It was de- 
signed to help the Indian help himself. I campaigned for its adoption at res- 
ervation elections and I am not a Communist - I'm a Republican." 

Act Benefits All Indians ■ "The act was defeated by the New York 
State Indians except the Cayugas , I believe. The Western Indians put it over, 
and all Indians have been reaping benefits under its provisions ever since. 



30 



"For instance, on the Cattaraugus Reservation the Do-Sho-Way Author- 
ity, a cooperative apiculture project which I helped to organize this year, 
is in actual operation. Indians there have a tomato-growing and canning plant 
that already has brought them profit . 

"This year for the first time the Cattaraugus Indians have conducted 
a business from beginning to end without white interference or red tape. They 
have grown their tomatoes without outside aid and packed them without outside 
aid. Their entire production has been bought by the Government and they will 
receive around $10,000 on their first venture into cooperative agriculture • Is 
this communism? I think not. 

"To make sure the money they have earned is not squandered, payments 
will be made to the Cattaraugus Indians over a period of ten months. This will 
insure them money during the hard non-growing months. 

"The old women of the reservations - and they are the real bosses - 
will tell you that far from being 'outrageous', conditions now are better than 
ever. For the first time, they will tell you, they can be sure of groceries 
in the house during the cold months. This is the result of the Wheeler-Howard 
Act of 1934." 

Praises Collier's Work - "No praise is too great for the work of Mr. 
Collier as head of the Indian Bureau. He has administered Indian affairs with 
an eye to the well-being of the Indian, his economic uplift and his social bet- 
terment and he has done a mighty good job. There are Indians working in his 
offices at Washington where formerly there were nothing but white people. 

"The policy of the Indian Bureau under Mr. Collier is to back up the 
Indian wherever he deserves backing up, and to provide undertakings which will 
keep him off relief and enable him to maintain his self-respect . 

"A lot of sob stuff won't get the Indians anything. What they need 
is work, not a lot of mewling over conditions which do or do not exist. 

"This policy is being followed on the Cattaraugus Reservation and 
with the expansion of the cooperative agriculture project next year more and 
more Indians will be in business for themselves and become independent of re- 
lief or charity. The $10,000 'take' this year is a mighty good start. And 
the beauty of it is this: the Indians conduct their business direct with the 
Government free of expenses, taxes, worry, salesmen, debts, and red tape! Out- 
rageous conditions, indeedt" 

Note: Mr. Codd is not in any way connected with the Office of Indian 

Affairs. 

* * * » * 

Cover Page Picture : The picture which appears on the cover page of 
this issue shows how maple sap is boiled- The photograph appears through' the 
courtesy of Monroe Paul Killy. 



31 



UNIQUE CCC-ID PROJECT PROVES VALUABLE AT CARSON AGENCY IN NEVADA 
By Mrs. Edith V. A. Murphey* 

With the purchase of cattle for Carson Agency, Nevada, from the dust- 
bowl area - animals which had been living under drought conditions - there 
arose the problem of poisonous plant food. Drought-starved cattle will eat 
everything they come to, including poisonous plants and loco plants which con- 
tain habit -forming drugs. Native cattle will not use these plants ordinarily; 
however, if the ranges have been overgrazed and the better plants and grasses 
killed out, even native stock will eat the poorer and tougher plants, many of 
which are habit-forming and even poisonous; Juices of these plants are some- 
times milky, bitter and unpalatable; even so, starvation plays no favorites, 
and when stock become used to these plants they will eventually become addicts 
and will eat nothing else. They grow thinner and less valuable daily- This 
process may take a period of months in the case of a diet of loco plants. Lark- 
spurs, milkweeds and poison hemlocks act more a_uickly, however, and death speed- 
ily results. 

With more information about range plants at Carson obviously needed, 
it was decided last June to use the Reese River CCC-ID camp as base for a 
thorough first-hand study. It was understood that CCC-ID enrollees would help 
me, but the course was optional. 

Most of my collecting was done on regular project trips, to save ex- 
pense, although a driver and truck were occasionally assigned to me for a spe- 
cial trip. 

The plan was to collect, press and mount the plants methodically in 
scrapbooks, thus making a portable collection which could be taken to any part 
of the Carson Jurisdiction at a moment's notice in case of cattle trouble. 

Pressing the plants was under my direct supervision, but the actual 
work of mounting the specimens was done by Indian CCC workers who hud been 
assigned to me. It was delicate work and the men did it meticulously. Speci- 
mens were fastened to the right-hand page of the scrapbook with transparent 
tape and a sheet of moisture-proof cellophane was then taped over the whole 
page as protection. On the left -band page were notes for each plant, giving 
full information as to the soil in which it grew, its companion plants, eleva- 
tion at which it is found, habits of growth, and its value or detriment to the 
range. Identifications, in which the University of California and the U. S. 
Bureau of Plant Industry helped by furnishing scientific names, were made as 
exact as possible. Indian names, and the Indians' uses for the plants were al- 
so included. 



* Mrs- Edith V. A. Murphey, who has long been interested in Indian welfare 
work, was employed as acting camp assistant at Carson Agency during the past 
summer . 



32 



It soon became a matter of pride with the enrollees to bring in un- 
usual plants- And so our collection grew, to become, I am confident, the most* 
complete plant collection, in portable form, for this part of Nevada. 

We had several class forums at which forage plants and poisonous 
plants were discussed and at which experienced Indian stockman contributed val- 
uable information. Equally as valuable as the classes, however, were the con- 
stant casual visits, during which the properties of the various plants were 
debated and knowledge of the Indian uses of the plants augmented- 

A duplicate set of the scrapbooks was made for Mr. Don C Foster, 
Agricultural Extension Agent for Carson Agency, and several hundred spare spec- 
imens were mounted in folders and arranged by locality. If Fort McDermitt, for 
instance, has cattle trouble due to poisonous plants, the twenty frames and 
scrapbooks, together with the Fort McDermitt folder would furnish a complete 
picture of that terrain. 

I might add that I was the only woman in a camp of sixty men for a 
month. I never saw a fight or heard any bad language; moreover, the men were 
so cordial that I never felt unwanted or ill at ease. I enjoyed the project 
greatly myself and I am of the .honest opinion that it produced a study of val- 
ue in the Carson program of conserving and developing its range. 



DEPARTMENTAL COMMITTEE ON WATER RESOURCES NAMED 

Under date of September 30, First Assistant Secretary Ebert K. Burlew 
approved the formation of a permanent committee in Washington to be known as 
the Departmental Committee on Water Resources, with the following personnel: 

N. C Grover, Chief Hydraulic Engineer, Geological Survey, Chairman; 
E. F. Preece , Assistant Chief Engineer, National Park Service; Clay H. South- 
worth, Assistant to the Director of Irrigation, Office of Indian Affairs; J. Q,. 
Peterson, Scientist, Division of Grazing; Wesley R. Nelson, Chief, Division of 
Engineering, Bureau of Reclamation; and F. M. Shore, Assistant to the Chief of 
the Economic and Statistics Branch, Bureau of Mines. 

The function of the committee is to act as contact agency with the 
Water Resources Committee and keep the various offices and bureaus in the de- 
partment acquainted with the activities of the main committee. 

The Water Resources Committee is a branch of the National Resources 
Committee, a federal agency established for the purpose of planning for wise 
conservation and planned use of our national resources. It succeeded the func- 
tions and duties of the older National Planning Board and the National Resources 
Board. 



33 



ELINOR GREGG LEAVES INDIAN SgRVIOg 

Miss Elinor D. Gregg, Director of Nursing, has submitted her resigna- 
tion, effective December 31. Miss Gregg was graduated from the Walt ham School 
of Nursing in Massachusetts, and since then she has been a leader in her profes- 
sion. She was one of the pioneers in industrial nursing, and has held various 
positions in connection with hospital nursing services. She was Superintendent 
of the Infants' Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, at the outbreak of the World 
War. Miss Gregg enlisted through the Red Cross as an Army nurse in the Harvard 
unit, and for two years saw active service in field hospitals on both the Ar- 
gonne and British fronts. 

Following the War she delivered Chautauqua lectures on public health. 
Later, at the request of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, she was assigned 
by the American Red Cross to perform survey work and to conduct health demon- 
strations among Indians. Miss Gregs entered the Indian Service August 1, 1924. 

She was located on the Rosebud and Pine Ridge Reservations in South 
Dakota, where she demonstrated the value of field work so successfully that 
she was appointed Supervisor of Field Nurses and Field Matrons- 

At the time Miss Gregg came into the Service there were positions 
for 114 graduate nurses (of whom 15 actually were graduate nurses) and 54 
field matrons and one field nurse. Under her direction this service has grown 
until there are at present 659 graduate nurses, 143 of whom are engaged in 
public health nursing activities. 

Miss Gregg has helped and encouraged Indian girls to take nursing 
courses at schools which rank high in the nursing world. She has made an ef- 
fort to know each Indian student nurse, and from her first-hand knowledge of 
the Indian Service has tried to guide them into the best channels for prepara- 
tion of our Service. There are at present 60 Indian nurses in the Service and 
ten are waiting for appointments. There are 52 Indian student nurses in ac- 
credited schools of nursing. 

Miss Gregg by h.^r devotion to the nursing profession and to the In- 
dian Service has been rewarded by the regard in which she is held by the 
nurses as a loyal personal friend and a trusted and inspiring leader. 



TOOLS FOUND IN UTAH CAVE 

Excavations in Bone Cave at Timpanagos Cave National Monument, Utah, 
conducted by Brigham Young University, have brought to light Indian tools and 
many bones. The latter were evidently taken into the cave by Indians, and not 
by predatory animals, as had formerly been supposed. ( Reprinted from Facts and 
Ar tifacts . ) 



34 



OThifoS LEAVE INDIAN SERVICE ; MISS LAVINIA M ORRISON ; 
JOHN B. DAWSON ; PAUL C. THOMPSON 

Two members of long standing in the Washington Office are retiring 
this month. Miss Lavinia Morrison, who transferred to the Indian Service in 
1920 and who since that time has done faithful and efficient service, retired 
from her post in the Personnel Office on December 31, 1938. 

John E. Dawson, of the Land Division, who will retire at the end of the 
month, has been in the Department of the Interior for the remarkable total of 
forty-nine years, and in Indian work for forty-one years. His experience with 
Indian affairs began in 1898 when he was transferred to the Indian Territory 
Division, under the Office of the Secretary of the Interior, where he handled 
Five Civilized Tribes matters during the complicated period following the 
Curtis Act, which entailed abolition of tribal governments, division of the 
Indians' land in severalty, and preparation of final rolls. When the Indian 
Territory Division was abolished in 1907, Mr. Dawson was transferred to the 
Office of Indian Affairs. He has continued to work on Five Civilized Tribes 
matters, and his exhaustive knowledge in this field has become an office by- 
word. Since 1912 he has worked on the famous Jackson Barnett case. He leaves 
the Service with the satisfaction of just having completed an important and 
much-needed compilation which will be entitled "Laws Relating To The Five 
Civilized Tribes In Oklahoma, Annotated, 1890-1938." Mr. Collier wrote to 
Mr. Dawson on his retirement, 

"Your record has been enviable. I wish to express apprecia- 
tion of your long and faithful service ... This is a very per- 
sonal expression, and so many here would join in it. We don't 
like to see you go - not at all I" 

Mr. Paul C. Thompson, Associate Engineer in charge of engineering 
work at the Billings District Office, recently resigned to accept private en- 
gineering employment. Mr. Thompson entered the Indian Service's Irrigation 
Division in 1933, and shortly thereafter was transferred to the Billings Of- 
fice in connection with CCC-ID work. Mr. Raymond Murphy, Associate Engineer, 
will assume Mr. Thompson's duties for the present. 



UINTAH-OURAY IRRIGATION SURVEY COMPLETED 

Work on the series of economic surveys of Indian irrigation projects, 
authorized under the act of June 22, 1936, is progressing; under Agricultural 
Economist A. L. Walker. Studies have been completed on the Uintah-Ouray Reser- 
vation, Utah, and the report is being studied by members of the Washington Of- 
fice staff. Studies are also in progress at Fort Hall, Idaho; and work will be 
started at the Flathead Reservation in Montana and at San Carlos, Arizona, with- 
in the next few months . 



35 



THE PALM SPRINGS PROBLEM - A STEP TOWARD SOLUTION 



By W. 7. Toehlke, Assistant to the Commissioner 



Progress in the settlement of the long-lived Palm Springs allotment 
controversy is being made, and an equitable settlement of this troubling situa- 
tion now seems possible. 

The Agua Caliente or Palm Springs Band of Indians consists of less 
than fifty persons, who live on an arid checker boarded reservation of some 
33,000 acres in Southern California. On part of the white-owned land with 
which the Indian land is interspersed there has developed Palm Springs, a fash- 
ionable winter resort. The presence of reservation land in .the heart of the 
now incorporated city of Palm Springs has produced high values and revenues for 
the Indians. Also, it has created friction not only between Indians and the 
white community but among the Indians as well. One cause of the internal con- 
flict between Indian factions was the attempt in 1923 and 1929 to allot part of 
the Palm Springs land to individual Indians against the opposition of a majority 




In The Settlement Of The Palm Springs Problems, Scenic Parts Of The 

Reservation, Such As The Area Photographed Above, Would Be Declared A National 

Monument , Provided That A Plan Could Be Worked Out To Compensate 

The Indians For The Surrender Of Such Areas. 



36 



of the band. The allotment process was never completed, but some of the In- 
dians occupied by assignment the most valuable tentative allotments. More 
than a year ago the claimants to these valuable tracts brought suit against 
the United States in an effort to gain trust title to the proposed allotments. 

The decision of the Federal District Court of the Southern District 
of California, Central Division, reached last summer (24 Fed. Sup. 237) upheld 
the Secretary of the Interior in declaring the proposed allotments void. Judge 
Yankwich, in handing down the decision, said, in part: "So here the Palm 
Springs Indians having aca.uired no vested right, and the power of the Secretary 
to withhold approval being discretionary, we cannot compel action that would 
give to the Indians the benefit of a right which they did not possess. We can- 
not compel action that would distribute the choicest part of tribal lands to 
a few individuals and would result in the spoliation of the others." 

This decision has been accepted with good grace by the majority of 
the Palm Springs Band. Members of the group are now considering the possibil- 
ity of assignments instead of allotments. 

Various plans for the sale or development of part of their valuable 
Indian holdings are being considered. Senator Elmer Thomas, Chairman of the 
Senate Committee on Indian Affairs, at his. recent visit to Palm Springs, urged 
the Indians to reach an agreement among themselves as to the course they want 
to pursue, since legislative action will be difficult without agreement between 
the Indians themselves on the one hand, and the Department of the Interior on 
the other. A modified form of the proposed enabling act which had the approval 
of the Palm Springs Indians last year has been prepared and will be submitted 
to the band and to Congress. Mr. H. W. Shipe, Assistant to the Director of Ir- 
rigation, met with the Agua Caliente Indians in October, and agreed to return 
to Palm Springs in the near future to help them work out a just and fair solu- 
tion of their problems- 

******* 

SOME CHEYENNE WORDS 

(As given by the Muddy Creek Day School Pupils In Lame Deer, Montana) 

Goo -ke-nay-ah bread 

Hay-o-aunch butter 

Vi-ki-mut sugar 

Vi-di-uh flour 

Woo-r»e-mups ( salt 

Vi-ki-goo-ke-nay-ah . . . cake or cookies 

Missie-sis potatoes 

My-a-mints corn 

Tsu-ah boy 

Tsu-ay girl 

Hid-dahn man 

Sta-mah woman 

Muh-sun-ne crazy 

37 



TREES FOR THE CHEYENNE RIVER RESERVATION . SOUTH DAKOTA 
By Brnest G-. Hawkinaon, Junior Forester 










Process Of Heeling In Tree Seedlings 

In the Northern Great Plains country trees have an uphill fight at 
best; and the recent years of drought, combined with insect pest at tacks, brought 
natural reproduction of native trees and wild fruits to a standstill. Pressing 
economic conditions, too, meant- a more rapid removal of existing timber for fuel 
and lumber. 

In 1935 a reforestation project was approved at the Cheyenne River 
Reservation as part of the CCC program. Indigenous trees and shrubs were to 
be propagated from seed. 

Collection of plant material and the building of a nursery on the 
banks of the Missouri River were the first steps. In 1936 the promising 
start of native varieties was wiped out, as were other nurseries in the local- 
ity, by hot winds and voracious attacks by insects. 

The season of 1937 proved more favorable and with few exceptions, all 
the tree seedlings did well - surprisingly well, considering the supposedly un- 
propitious conditions of moisture and climate. Probably we must expect an off 
year occasionally; but there is no doubt that in general trees can be grown 
successfully here from seed. 

Our distribution system is simple. Seedlings of usable sizes are 
distributed either to individual Indians, to day schools, and similar groups 



38 




through the extension 
workers or they are 
used in CCC-IL tree 
planting projects- 
Somewhat "better re- 
sults have been ob- 
tained in growth and 
survival in those 
plots where planting 
and after-care have 
been under the super- 
vision of CCC-ID work- 
ers; this we feel, how- 
ever, is not due to 
lack of interest but 
to an initial lack of 
understanding of the 
importance of cultiva- 
tion and care after planting. This situation is rapidly being remedied through 
an educational program- Small group meetings have been held over the reserva- 
tion, at which the best known methods of handling nursery stock before and dur- 
ing planting were actually demonstrated; open forums were also Jield on care of 
trees in general. These open forums are meeting with good response. It is 
very evident that the Indians in general are becoming " tree-conscious" , and 
that they are keenly interested in the success of the venture. They are well 
aware that a future supply of trees, both for shelter and wood material, must 
be provided for by man's efforts in this part of the country. 

The United States Forest Service has been a source of valuable infor- 
mation and has also helped us generously by supplying us with seeds we were un- 
able to secure otherwise. This project is, of course, really a part of the 
United States Forest Service program, although it is being operated with In- 
dian Service personnel. 



Chinese Elm, Two Years Old From Seed 



WASHINGTON OFFICE VISITORS 

Recent visitors to the Washington Office have included Jasper W. El- 
liott, Superintendent, Warm Springs Agency, Oregon; Charles L. Ellis, Superin- 
tendent, Osage Agency, Oklahoma, who was accompanied by Mr. G-. B. Fulton, Trib- 
al Attorney for the Osage Indian Tribe, together with a tribal delegation which 
included Charles Whitehom, Joseph Mathews, Lee Pappan, Louis Denoya, Ed Simp- 
kins, John Abbott, Paul Pitts and Frank Quinton; Emmet t E. McNeilly, Superin- 
tendent, Rocky Boy's Agency, Montana; and A. G. McMillan, Assistant Superin- 
tendent, Five Civilized Tribes Agency, Oklahoma. 

Another recent visitor at the Washington Office has been H. Scudder 
Mekeel, Director of the Laboratory of Anthropology of Santa Fe, New Mexico. 



39 



RAN&B REST AND E3VEGETATI0N STOP BLOWING- SANDS 



Nava.j o Irrigation Project Near Kayenta , Arizona , Protected 

Navajo families who have labored for years on an irrigation ditch 
near Kayenta, Arizona, are jubilant today because revegetation has returned to 
their overerazed range and they will not again face the weary task of shoveling 
tons of sand from the main channel of their irrigation system. 

Before range control allowed vegetation to return to the destroyed 
land, it was a semi-annual task to clean the irrigation canal. The seemingly 
insurmountable job once caused these Navajos to abandon all hope and their 
parched land lay idle one season- 

The Indian Service, in cooperation with Soil Conservation Service, 
has come to the rescue and has been able to help a number of similar small farm 
projects on the Navajo Reservation where abuse of the range by overgrazing has 
directly affected the farming industry. 

The Kayenta farming area is irrigated from a reservoir filled from 
autumn run-off s in Laguna Creek. The ditch from Laguna Creek to the reservoir, 
and from the reservoir to the farms, runs through soil containing much sand. 
Overgrazing destroyed the vegetative cover, and wind, blowing over the bare 
ground, was rapidly turning the land into a series of desolate sand dunes. Sand 
filled the irrigation ditch almost as rapidly as it could be cleaned out. 

In the fall of 1936, a total of 180 work-days were spent by men with 
teams and 160 work-days by men working single-handed in cleaning the ditch 
leading to the reservoir. The following spring, 330 work-days were required 
by men with teams and 280 by men single-handed to clean the ditch from the 
reservoir to the fields. 

In the fall of 1937 the area surrounding the ditch was added to the 
Kayenta Demonstration Area. This meant a reduction of the stock on the area 
to carrying capacity. Results of the reduction began to show as early as the 
following spring. In the spring of 1938 cleaning required only 110 work-days 
by men with teams and 380 work-days by men working single-handed. This was a 
saving of two-thirds the labor of men with teams and an increase of one-third 
of the labor of men working single-handed. 

With the area controlled for one year, only 13 days 1 work by men 
without teams were necessary to clean the ditch, removing tumbleweed, sand and 
silt. This was a saving, over 1936, of 180 teamster-days and 157 man -days. 

The change in attitude of Navajo farmers is perhaps even more impor- 
tant than the saving of labor. Navajos formerly felt that attempts to clean 
the ditch were useless, as sand would fill it again before it could be used. 
This fall the small amount of labor required was performed cheerfully, since 
they were assured of water. 

40 



Control of blowing sand has been effected by natural revegetation 
coming back caused by the reduction in grazing. At present the soil is being 
held mostly by yellow-bush and Russian thistle. More beneficial species, in- 
including saccaton, galleta, grama, and chamiso, are slower in their return, 
but are coming back. Chamiso, in particular, has made a surprising recovery. 
At the time the area was fenced, it was so denuded as to appear dead, but after 
a year's control it is definitely on its way back. 



PINS RIDGE (SOUTH DAKOTA) CHILDREN IN AND OUT OF THE CLASSROOM 




Mr. Luke Big 
Turnip, full-blood 
Sioux, was invited 
to tell students 
something of Sioux tra- 
ditions at Day School 
Number Nine at Mander- 
son, South Dakota. 



The garden 
class in action at the 
Holy Rosary Mission. 
(Photographs through 
courtesy of the Rev- 
erend Joseph A. Zim- 
merman . ) 




41 



RANGE REHABILITATION AT FORT HALL . IDAHO 



A project for the reseeding of a large area of land at the Fort Hall 
Reservation in Idaho, which had been plowed for dry farming in the days before 
the danger of such procedure was recognized - land which turned out to be un- 
suitable for dry farming - was carried on this fall with the cooperation of the 
Soil Conservation Service. The lands involved are the recent addition to the 
reservation at the headwaters of Bannock Creek which was purchased for Indian 
use by the Resettlement Administration. 

Some 2,760 acres are to be revegetated, of which 2,142 acres are to 
be machine seeded and 618 acres are to be hand seeded. Heavy rains during the 
last half of October and unseasonable low temperatures all through November 
have made it practically impossible to operate the six seeders which are beinc 
drawn by two tractors. By December 1 the sowing of the seed was nearly 10 per 
cent completed. Unless more favorable weather arrives soon it will be neces- 
sary to store the remaining seed and the equipment and complete the job as soon 
as favorable spring weather arrives. This revegetation process would have re- 
quired twelve to fifteen years if left to nature. The area will be covered 
with seeds of suitable perennial grasses, and it is expected that an excellent 
stand of forage will become established, provided that moisture conditions are 
favorable . 



BULL HOLLOW CCC-ID CAMP 




The CCC-ID unit 
at Muskogee, Oklahoma, has 
taken over the plant of 
Bull Hollow Camp, formerly 
a white CCC camp • 

This includes in- 
firmary, sleeping quarters, 
kitchen, mess hall and den- 
tal unit . The operating 
table and instrument cabi- 
nets in the infirmary were 
received from the Army as 
salvage and rebuilt and re- 
conditioned by enrollee me- 
chanics at the camp shop. 



Raising The Flag At Bull Hollow Camp 



42 



CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS — INDIAN DIVISION 
NOTES FROM WEEKLY PROGRESS REPORTS 



Work On The Swan Lake Truck 
Trail At Klamath ( Oregon ) This week 
marked the final stretch, or rather, 
the completion of Swan Lake Truck 
Trail by the machinery and other e- 
quipment, with the exception, of 
course, of the rock-crusher and Sixty 
Caterpillar. Three men were detailed 
to remain behind to operate the above 
designated equipment. _C. B. Knight . 

Work At Wind River ( Wyoming ) 
The weed control crews are doing 
splendid work in trying to get rid 
of all poisonous weeds before the 
snowy weather sets in. 

The bridge crew at Crow Creek 
has done a good bit of work this week 
in setting in fence posts along the 
right-of-way. Besides this, they 
are also waiting for the forms for 
the bridge so that they can go ahead 
and put in the concrete foundations. 
James Fox. 

Work On The Moses Mountain Look - 
out Tower At Colville ( Washington ) 
The new lookout tower on Moses Moun- 
tain began to slough off ice onto the 
cabin. The cabin was built last fall 
and the t ower was bui 1 1 thi s summer . 
Because the tower was built so near 
the cabin, the tower had a tendency to 
throw' quite a lot of ice on it. When 
the early frost" arrived, the ice be- 
came a nuisance, and later turned 
out to be a hazard. This menace was 
taken care of the other day when 
Walter Moomaw and a few of the boys 
undertook to erect a false roof of 
two-inch boards over the cabin. This 
extra roof protection will absorb the 
shock and lessen the chances of furth- 



er damage. While the boys were fix- 
ing the cabin roof, it was noticed 
that the ice had very nearly punc- 
tured the heavy roofing in several 
places. Louis Orr . 

First Adult Bducat i on Program 
Presented At Rosebud ( South Dakota ) 
The first adult education program 
was presented at five communities 
with an aggregate attendance of 620 
people. The meeting was in charge 
of Dr. Walla Tate. The full program 
is being worked out with requests 
from individual communities as to 
the choice of speakers, dates, and 
subjects to fit in with the visual 
education program. A. A. Remmele , 
Camp Assistant . 

Dike Maintenance At Tulalip 
( Washington ) Fair progress contin- 
ues on the dike maintenance project . 
Practically all of the timbers re- 
quired have been cut and delivered 
on the site. Three of the retain- 
ing well structures are about com- 
pleted. Lumber and posts are dis- 
tributed along the dike where the 
repairs are to be made. Practically 
all the labor in connection with the 
job is being done by hand. The 
posts or short piling are being 
hand-driven because the land is 
/loam and consequently free from 
gravel and rocks. This makes hand- 
driving practicable. Theodore 
Lpzeau , Ranger ■ 

Bnrollees Preparing Gifts For 
Chrj stmas At Salem School ( Oregon ) 
Christmas time is getting nearer. 
The enrollees are bending every ef- 
fort to take fullest advantage of 



43 



their spare time after the working 
day is over. For several hours each 
evening the boys work on their Christ- 
mas presents . They are making doll 
beds out of knocked down apple boxes , 
and stick horses for the kiddies tc 
ride. Some of the boys' wives are 
pretty good carpenters and conse- 
quently are also working at the shop 
making broom holders and things to 
use about the home for everyday rou- 
tine. 

The recreation building is of 
great value to the men and they cer- 
tainly are making good use of it. 
James L. Shawver , Dairyman . 

Work On The Lone Tree Dam Con - 
tinues At Fort Belknap ( Montana ) 
Work on the concrete chute spillway 
at the Lone Tree Dam continued, but 
recent rains have caused the excavated 
section to become muddy. Excavation 
is now practically complete and foot- 
ing forms have been installed. Foot- 
ings can be poured as soon as the re- 
inforcing iron is placed. 

We plan to place the concrete 
with a buck operated on a cable 
swinging over the spillway. The cable 
will be anchored stationary at one 
end and swung radially at the other 
end by anchoring to a truck, thus 
making it possible to change the po- 
sition of the bucket. The bucket is 
hung on a pivot and the front end can 
be lowered by means of a block and 
tackle. A sliding gate on the bucket 
dumps the concrete. We have a one- 
batch mixer and the bucket is de- 
signed to carry a full batch. Condi- 
tions prevent dumping direct from the 
mixer to the bucket so the concrete 
will have to be wheeled a short dis- 
tance from the mixer to the bucket. 
This idea was developed because of 
the difficulty of moving the concrete 
either by wheel or by chute into the 
forms. P. A. Blair, Instrumentman. 



Enrollee Educational Program At 
feed Lake ( Minnesota ) As part of the 
educational program a safety meeting 
was conducted recently. Every enroll- 
ee was invited to attend, but due to 
inclement weather, a few could not 
attend. During this meeting a copy 
of the new CCC-ID Safety Regulations 
was distributed among those present- 
These regulations were discussed. A 
questionnaire on the uniform Highway 
Traffic Act was also distributed 
among the members of the CCC-ID or-' 
ganization, to be answered and re- 
turned to the Senior Camp Assistant, 
Mr. Oksness. 0. V. Fink . 

Work On Water Supply System Con - 
tinues At Mission (California ) Work 
continued on the water supply system. 
About 500 feet of two-inch pipe was 
welded, laid and completed to the 
Cushman property on the south side of 
Pechanga Creek. Work was continued 
on the main line and on the trail on 
the south side of the Pechanga Creek 
west toward the Protestant Church. 
About 3,300 feet have been laid and 
back-filled to date. 

Another portion of the crew has 
been working on the erosion control 
project in Pechanga Creek at a point 
just below the fiesta grounds. The 
long rock and wire revetment wall 
will be built along the creek at this 
point to deflect the water to its 
original channel and to conform to 
the channel change work under con- 
struction by the Road Department. 
This will confine the water to its 
original channel and give good protec- 
tion to the new trail under construc- 
tion on this reservation. E. A. Vitt, 
Project Manager . 

Soil Conservation At Winnebago 
( Nebraska ) We are making much more 
progress on this project, due to the 
almost perfect weather conditions- 
The enrollees are in training for the 



44 



contest with the Winnebagos • The 
competition in the contest will con- 
sist of making wire dams, log dams 
and timber flumes. The date for the 
contest has not been set as yet. Cuy 
Lambert , Indian Assistant . 

Activities At Mescalero ( New 
Mexico! Our enrol lee group parti ci- 1 - 
pated in a tour of the lumber proj- 
ects on the reservation. The men 
were very glad to be afforded this 
opportunity to see just how lumber 
is produced. Mr. Osborn, Production 
Supervisor, gave short talks at each 
place we stopped, explaining the 
methods of operation and the reason 
for the various steps. Mr. Newman, 
Superintendent , spoke for a few min- 
utes after the noonday meal with re- 
gard to recreation and education on 
the Mescalero Reservation. We plan 
to take these field trips at least 
once a month in connection with this 
program.. 

Our basket ball team has been 
entered in a league composed of 
teams from Otero County to promote 
neighborly feeling and closer rela- 



tionship between the towns in this 
county. The enrollees have given 
full support to this activity and 
we expect to have a successful sea- 
son. 

Activities At Fort Peck (Mon- 
tana ) A cold wave recently swept 
through this part of the country. 

Work is being continued on the 
recreational programs- The foremen 
are urging their crews to prepare 
their individual programs for compe- 
tition with the others. 

A first-aid school will be held 
at the end of the montft. Just how 
many of the students will attend is 
not known at this time. At the 
closing of this school, our percent- 
age of truck drivers, assistant lead- 
ers and leaders with certificates 
will be 100 per cent. A. B. Casper , 
Camp Assistant . 

Dam #148 - Project #91. The di- 
version dike on this dam is nearing 
completion. Due to cold weather, 
working time is limited. £. MacJoaald . 




No Elaborate Kitchens Are Required For These Crews Which Move 

Often. Each Individual May Prepare His Own Meals On Such A 

Camp Fire As This. Much Of Their Food Comes From A Can. 



45 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION LIBRARIES 



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